For teachers

Vocabulary can be defined, roughly, as the words we teach in the foreign language. However, a new item of vocabulary may be more than just a single word: for example, post office, and mother-in-law, which are made up of two or three words but express a single idea. A useful convention is to cover all such cases by talking about vocabulary “items” rather than “words”. (Ur, 2003, p 60)


Teaching language means teaching culture

Culture is a way of life. It is the context within which we exist, think, feel, and relate to others. It is the "glue" that binds a group of people together.

Teaching English to Young Learners – theory and practice



Learning foreign languages has become very popular nowadays. Its popularity is the result of its importance in today’s world. The presence of Poland in the European Union has forced people to learn languages spoken in other countries. Although many people are willing to learn a foreign language, not everyone is able to achieve the same level of knowledge.

  • T      There are various issues worth being considered while teaching English to Young Learners.

What is grammar?

According to Penny Ur (1996: 75), grammar is simply “the way words are put together to make correct sentence”. Although this is an over-simplificated definition, it is a good starting point and an easy way to explain the term to young learners.

In a wider-range term, grammar is defined as the set of structural rules that gov-erns the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes:

•       Morphology, which is the identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given language's linguistic units, such as morphemes, root words, affixes, parts of speech, intonation/stress, or implied context

•     Syntax, which is the study of the principles and processes by which sen-tences are constructed in particular languages

•        Phonology, which is concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages  

These three branches are often complemented by:

•        Phonetics, which comprises the study of the sounds of human speech

•        Semantics, which focuses on the relation between signifiers, like words, phrases, signs, and symbols, and what they stand for

•     Pragmatics, which is a subfield of linguistics which studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning